# Unit 8 – Applications of Integration

I haven’t missed Unit 7! This unit seems to fit more logically after the opening unit on integration (Unit 6). The Course and Exam Description (CED) places Unit 7 Differential Equations before Unit 8 probably because the previous unit ended with techniques of antidifferentiation. My guess is that many teachers will teach Unit 8: Applications of Integration immediately after Unit 6 and before Unit 7: Differential Equations. The order is up to you. Unit 7 will post next Tuesday.

Unit 8 includes some standard problems solvable by integration (CED – 2019 p. 143 – 161). These topics account for about 10 – 15% of questions on the AB exam and 6 – 9% of the BC questions.

### Topics 8.1 – 8.3 Average Value and Accumulation

Topic 8.1 Finding the Average Value of a Function on an Interval Be sure to distinguish between average value of a function on an interval, average rate of change on an interval and the mean value

Topic 8.2 Connecting Position, Velocity, and Acceleration of Functions using Integrals Distinguish between displacement (= integral of velocity) and total distance traveled (= integral of speed)

Topic 8. 3 Using Accumulation Functions and Definite Integrals in Applied Contexts The integral of a rate of change equals the net amount of change. A really big idea and one that is tested on all the exams. So, if you are asked for an amount, look around for a rate to integrate.

### Topics 8.4 – 8.6 Area

Topic 8.4 Finding the Area Between Curves Expressed as Functions of x

Topic 8.5 Finding the Area Between Curves Expressed as Functions of y

Topic 8.6 Finding the Area Between Curves That Intersect at More Than Two Points Use two or more integrals or integrate the absolute value of the difference of the two functions. The latter is especially useful when do the computation of a graphing calculator.

### Topics 8.7 – 8.12 Volume

Topic 8.7 Volumes with Cross Sections: Squares and Rectangles

Topic 8.8 Volumes with Cross Sections: Triangles and Semicircles

Topic 8.9 Volume with Disk Method: Revolving around the x– or y-Axis Volumes of revolution are volumes with circular cross sections, so this continues the previous two topics.

Topic 8.10 Volume with Disk Method: Revolving Around Other Axes

Topic 8.11 Volume with Washer Method: Revolving Around the x– or y-Axis See Subtract the Hole from the Whole for an easier way to remember how to do these problems.

Topic 8.12 Volume with Washer Method: Revolving Around Other Axes. See Subtract the Hole from the Whole for an easier way to remember how to do these problems.

### Topic 8.13  Arc Length BC Only

Topic 8.13 The Arc Length of a Smooth, Planar Curve and Distance Traveled  BC ONLY

### Timing

The suggested time for Unit 8 is  19 – 20 classes for AB and 13 – 14 for BC of 40 – 50-minute class periods, this includes time for testing etc.

### Average Value and Accumulation

Most Triangles Are Obtuse!

Half-full or Half-empty

Accumulation: Need an Amount?

AP Accumulation Questions

Good Question 7 – 2009 AB 3 Accumulation, explain the meaning of an integral in context, unit analysis

Good Question 8 – or Not Unit analysis

Graphing with Accumulation 1 Seeing increasing and decreasing through integration

Graphing with Accumulation 2 Seeing concavity through integration

Adapting AB 1 / BC 1

### Area

Area Between Curves

Under is a Long Way Down  Avoiding “negative area.”

Math vs. the “Real World”  Improper integrals  BC Topic

Adapting 2021 AB 3 / BC 3

### Volume

Volumes of Solids with Regular Cross-sections

Volumes of Revolution

Why You Never Need Cylindrical Shells

Visualizing Solid Figures 1

Visualizing Solid Figures 3

Visualizing Solid Figures 4

Visualizing Solid Figures 5

Painting a Point

Adapting 2021 AB 3 / BC 3

### Other Applications of Integrals

Density Functions have been tested in the past, but are not specifically listed on the CED then or now.

Who’d a Thunk It? Some integration problems suitable for graphing calculator solution

Here are links to the full list of posts discussing the ten units in the 2019 Course and Exam Description.

2019 CED – Unit 1: Limits and Continuity

2019 CED – Unit 2: Differentiation: Definition and Fundamental Properties.

2019 CED – Unit 3: Differentiation: Composite , Implicit, and Inverse Functions

2019 CED – Unit 4 Contextual Applications of the Derivative  Consider teaching Unit 5 before Unit 4

2019 – CED Unit 5 Analytical Applications of Differentiation  Consider teaching Unit 5 before Unit 4

2019 – CED Unit 6 Integration and Accumulation of Change

2019 – CED Unit 7 Differential Equations  Consider teaching after Unit 8

2019 – CED Unit 8 Applications of Integration   Consider teaching after Unit 6, before Unit 7

2019 – CED Unit 9 Parametric Equations, Polar Coordinates, and Vector-Values Functions

2019 CED Unit 10 Infinite Sequences and Series

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# Unit 6 – Integration and Accumulation of Change

Unit 6 develops the ideas behind integration, the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, and Accumulation. (CED – 2019 p. 109 – 128). These topics account for about 17 – 20% of questions on the AB exam and 17 – 20% of the BC questions.

### Topics 6.1 – 6.4 Working up to the FTC

Topic 6.1 Exploring Accumulations of Change Accumulation is introduced through finding the area between the graph of a function and the x-axis. Positive and negative rates of change, unit analysis.

Topic 6.2 Approximating Areas with Riemann Sums Left-, right-, midpoint Riemann sums, and Trapezoidal sums, with uniform partitions are developed. Approximating with numerical methods, including use of technology are considered. Determining if the approximation is an over- or under-approximation.

Topic 6.3 Riemann Sums, Summation Notation and the Definite Integral. The definition integral is defined as the limit of a Riemann sum.

Topic 6.4 The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (FTC) and Accumulation Functions Functions defined by definite integrals and the FTC.

Topic 6.5 Interpreting the Behavior of Accumulation Functions Involving Area Graphical, numerical, analytical, and verbal representations.

Topic 6.6 Applying Properties of Definite Integrals Using the properties to ease evaluation, evaluating by geometry and dealing with discontinuities.

Topic 6.7 The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus and Definite Integrals Antiderivatives. (Note: I suggest writing the FTC in this form $displaystyle int_{a}^{b}{{{f}'left( x right)}}dx=fleft( b right)-fleft( a right)$ because it seem more efficient then using upper case and lower case f.)

### Topics 6.5 – 6.14 Techniques of Integration

Topic 6.8 Finding Antiderivatives and Indefinite Integrals: Basic Rules and Notation. Using basic differentiation formulas to find antiderivatives. Some functions do not have closed-form antiderivatives. (Note: While textbooks often consider antidifferentiation before any work with integration, this seems like the place to introduce them. After learning the FTC students have a reason to find antiderivatives. See Integration Itinerary

Topic 6.9 Integration Using Substitution The u-substitution method. Changing the limits of integration when substituting.

Topic 6.10 Integrating Functions Using Long Division and Completing the Square

Topic 6.11 Integrating Using Integration by Parts (BC ONLY)

Topic 6.12 Integrating Using Linear Partial Fractions (BC ONLY)

Topic 6.13 Evaluating Improper Integrals (BC ONLY) Showing the work requires students to show correct limit notation.

Topic 6.14 Selecting Techniques for Antidifferentiation This means practice, practice, practice.

### Timing

The suggested time for Unit 6 is  18 – 20 classes for AB and 15 – 16 for BC of 40 – 50-minute class periods, this includes time for testing etc.

Previous posts on these topics include:

### Introducing Integration

Integration Itinerary

The Old Pump and Flying to Integrationland   Two introductory explorations

Working Towards Riemann Sums

Riemann Sums

The Definition of the Definite Integral

Foreshadowing the FTC

The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

More About the FTC

Y the FTC?

Area Between Curves

Under is a Long Way Down

Properties of Integrals

Trapezoids – Ancient and Modern  On Trapezoid sums

Good Question 9 – Riemann Reversed   Given a Riemann sum can you find the Integral it converges to?  A common and difficult AP Exam problem

Adapting 2021 AB 1 / BC 1

Adapting 2021 AB 4 / BC 4

### Accumulation

Accumulation: Need an Amount?

Good Question 7 – 2009 AB 3

Good Question 8 – or Not?  Unit analysis

AP Exams Accumulation Question    A summary of accumulation ideas.

Graphing with Accumulation 1

Graphing with Accumulation 2

Accumulation and Differential Equations

Painting a Point

### Techniques of Integrations (AB and BC)

Antidifferentiation

Why Muss with the “+C”?

Good Question 13  More than one way to skin a cat.

### Integration by Parts – a BC Topic

Integration by Parts 1

Integration by Part 2

Parts and More Parts

Good Question 12 – Parts with a Constant?

Modified Tabular Integration

Improper Integrals and Proper Areas

Math vs the Real World Why $displaystyle int_{{-infty }}^{infty }{{frac{1}{x}}}dx$ does not converge.

Here are links to the full list of posts discussing the ten units in the 2019 Course and Exam Description.

2019 CED – Unit 1: Limits and Continuity

2019 CED – Unit 2: Differentiation: Definition and Fundamental Properties.

2019 CED – Unit 3: Differentiation: Composite , Implicit, and Inverse Functions

2019 CED – Unit 4 Contextual Applications of the Derivative  Consider teaching Unit 5 before Unit 4

2019 – CED Unit 5 Analytical Applications of Differentiation  Consider teaching Unit 5 before Unit 4

2019 – CED Unit 6 Integration and Accumulation of Change

2019 – CED Unit 7 Differential Equations  Consider teaching after Unit 8

2019 – CED Unit 8 Applications of Integration   Consider teaching after Unit 6, before Unit 7

2019 – CED Unit 9 Parametric Equations, Polar Coordinates, and Vector-Values Functions

2019 CED Unit 10 Infinite Sequences and Series

# Unit 3 – Differentiation: Composite, Implicit, and Inverse Function

This is a re-post and update of the third in a series of posts from last year. It contains links to posts on this blog about the differentiation of composite, implicit, and inverse functions for your reference in planning. Other updated post on the 2019 CED will come throughout the year, hopefully, a few weeks before you get to the topic.

Unit 3 covers the Chain Rule, differentiation techniques that follow from it, and higher order derivatives. (CED – 2019 p. 67 – 77). These topics account for about 9 – 13% of questions on the AB exam and 4 – 7% of the BC questions.

### Topics 3.1 – 3.6

Topic 3.1 The Chain Rule. Students learn how to apply the Chain Rule in basic situations.

Topic 3.2 Implicit Differentiation. The Chain Rule is used to find the derivative of implicit relations.

Topic 3.3 Differentiation Inverse Functions.  The Chain Rule is used to differentiate inverse functions.

Topic 3.4 Differentiating Inverse Trigonometric Functions. Continuing the previous section, the ideas of the derivative of the inverse are applied to the inverse trigonometric functions.

Topic 3.5 Selecting Procedures for Calculating Derivatives. Students need to be able to choose which differentiation procedure should be used for any function they are given. This is where you can review (spiral) techniques from Unit 2  and practice those from this unit.

Topic 3.6 Calculating Higher Order Derivatives. Second and higher order derivatives are considered. Also, the notations for higher order derivatives are included here.

Topics 3.2, 3.4, and 3.5 will require more than one class period. You may want to do topic 3.6 before 3.5 and use 3.5 to practice all the differentiated techniques learned so far. The suggested number of 40 – 50-minute class periods is about 10 – 11 for AB and 8 – 9 for BC. This includes time for testing etc.

Posts on these topics include:

Foreshadowing the Chain Rule

The Power Rule Implies Chain Rule

The Chain Rule

Derivative Practice – Numbers

Derivative Practice – Graphs

Experimenting with CAS – Chain Rule

Implicit Differentiation of Parametric Equations

Adapting 2021 AB 5

This series of posts reviews and expands what students know from pre-calculus about inverses. This leads to finding the derivative of exponential functions, ax, and the definition of e, from which comes the definition of the natural logarithm.

Inverses Graphically and Numerically

The Range of the Inverse

The Calculus of Inverses

The Derivatives of Exponential Functions and the Definition of e and This pair of posts shows how to find the derivative of an exponential function, how and why e is chosen to help this differentiation.

Logarithms Inverses are used to define the natural logarithm function as the inverse of ex. This follow naturally from the work on inverses. However, integration is involved and this is best saved until later. I will mention it then.

Here are links to the full list of posts discussing the ten units in the 2019 Course and Exam Description.

Limits and Continuity – Unit 1  (8-11-2020)

Definition of t he Derivative – Unit 2  (8-25-2020)

Differentiation: Composite, Implicit, and Inverse Function – Unit 3  (9-8-2020) THIS POST

LAST YEAR’S POSTS – These will be updated in coming weeks

2019 CED – Unit 4 Contextual Applications of the Derivative  Consider teaching Unit 5 before Unit 4

2019 – CED Unit 5 Analytical Applications of Differentiation  Consider teaching Unit 5 before Unit 4

2019 – CED Unit 6 Integration and Accumulation of Change

2019 – CED Unit 7 Differential Equations  Consider teaching after Unit 8

2019 – CED Unit 8 Applications of Integration   Consider teaching after Unit 6, before Unit 7

2019 – CED Unit 9 Parametric Equations, Polar Coordinates, and Vector-Values Functions

2019 CED Unit 10 Infinite Sequences and Series

# Unit 2 – Definition of the Derivative

This is a re-post and update of the second in a series of posts from last year. It contains links to posts on this blog about the definition of the derivative for your reference in planning. Other updated post on the 2019 CED will come throughout the year, hopefully, a few weeks before you get to the topic.

Unit 2 contains topics rates of change, difference quotients, and the definition of the derivative (CED – 2019 p. 51 – 66). These topics account for about 10 – 12% of questions on the AB exam and 4 – 7% of the BC questions.

### Topics 2.1 – 2.4: Introducing and Defining the Derivative

Topic 2.1: Average and Instantaneous Rate of Change. The forward difference quotient is used to introduce the idea of rate of change over an interval and its limit as the length of the interval approaches zero is the instantaneous rate of change.

Topic 2.2: Defining the derivative and using derivative notation. The derivative is defined as the limit of the difference quotient from topic 1 and several new notations are introduced. The derivative is the slope of the tangent line at a point on the graph. Explain graphically, numerically, and analytically how the three representations relate to each other and the slope.

Topic 2.3 Estimating the derivative at a point.  Using tables and technology to approximate derivatives is used in this topic. The two resources in the sidebar will be helpful here.

Topic 2.4: Differentiability and Continuity. An important theorem is that differentiability implies continuity – everywhere a function is differentiable it is continuous.  Its converse is false – a function may be continuous at a point, but not differentiable there. A counterexample is the absolute value function, |x|, at x = 0.

One way that the definition of derivative is tested on recent exams which bothers some students is to ask a limit like

$displaystyle underset{{xto 0}}{mathop{{lim }}},frac{{tan left( {tfrac{pi }{4}+x} right)-tan left( {tfrac{pi }{4}} right)}}{x}$.

From the form of the limit students should realize this as the limit definition of the derivative. The h in the definition has been replaced by x. The function is tan(x) at the point where $displaystyle a=tfrac{pi }{4}$. The limit is $displaystyle {{sec }^{2}}left( {tfrac{pi }{4}} right)=2$.

### Topics 2.5 – 2.10: Differentiation Rules

The remaining topics in this chapter are the rules for calculating derivatives without using the definition. These rules should be memorized as students will be using them constantly. There will be additional rules in Unit 3 (Chain Rule, Implicit differentiation, higher order derivative) and for BC, Unit 9 (parametric and vector equations).

Topic 2.5: The Power Rule

Topic 2.6: Constant, sum, difference, and constant multiple rules

Topic 2.7: Derivatives of the cos(x), sin(x), ex, and ln(x). This is where you use the squeeze theorem.

Topic 2.8. The Product Rule

Topic 2.9: The Quotient Rule

Topic 2.10: Derivative of the other trigonometric functions

The rules can be tested directly by just asking for the derivative or its value at a point for a given function. Or they can be tested by requiring the students to use the rule of an general expression and then find the values from a table, or a graph. See 2019 AB 6(b)

The suggested number of 40 – 50 minute class periods is 13 – 14 for AB and 9 – 10  for BC. This includes time for testing etc. Topics 2.1, 2,2, and 2.3 kind of flow together, but are important enough that you should spend time on them so that students develop a good understanding of what a derivative is. Topics 2.5 thru 2.10 can be developed in 2 -3 days, but then time needs to be spent deciding which rule(s) to use and in practice using them. The sidebar resource in the CED on “Selecting Procedures for Derivative” may be helpful here.

Other post on these topics

### DEFINITION OF THE DERIVATIVE

Local Linearity 1  The graphical manifestation of differentiability with pathological examples.

Local Linearity 2   Using local linearity to approximate the tangent line. A calculator exploration.

Discovering the Derivative   A graphing calculator exploration

The Derivative 1  Definition of the derivative

The Derivative 2   Calculators and difference quotients

Difference Quotients 1

Difference Quotients II

Tangents and Slopes

Adapting 2021 AB 4 / BC 4

### FINDING DERIVATIVES

Why Radians?  Don’t do calculus without them

The Derivative Rules 1  Constants, sums and differences, powers.

The Derivative Rules 2  The Product rule

The Derivative Rules 3  The Quotient rule

Here are links to the full list of posts discussing the ten units in the 2019 Course and Exam Description.the 2019 versions.

2019 CED – Unit 1: Limits and Continuity

2019 CED – Unit 2: Differentiation: Definition and Fundamental Properties.

2019 CED – Unit 3: Differentiation: Composite , Implicit, and Inverse Functions

2019 CED – Unit 4 Contextual Applications of the Derivative  Consider teaching Unit 5 before Unit 4

2019 – CED Unit 5 Analytical Applications of Differentiation  Consider teaching Unit 5 before Unit 4

2019 – CED Unit 6 Integration and Accumulation of Change

2019 – CED Unit 7 Differential Equations  Consider teaching after Unit 8

2019 – CED Unit 8 Applications of Integration   Consider teaching after Unit 6, before Unit 7

2019 – CED Unit 9 Parametric Equations, Polar Coordinates, and Vector-Values Functions

2019 CED Unit 10 Infinite Sequences and Series

# Unit 1 – Limits and Continuity

This is a re-post and update of the first in a series of posts from last year. It contains links to posts on this blog about the topics of limits and continuity for your reference in planning. Other updated post on the 2019 CED will come throughout the year, hopefully, a few weeks before you get to the topic.

Unit 1 contains topics on Limits and Continuity. (CED – 2019 p. 36 – 50). These topics account for about 10 – 12% of questions on the AB exam and 4 – 7% of the BC questions.

Logically, limits come before continuity since limit is used to define continuity. Practically and historically, continuity comes first. Newton and Leibnitz did not have the concept of limit the way we use it today. It was in the early 1800’s that the epsilon-delta definition of limit was first given by Bolzano (whose work was overlooked) and then by Cauchy, Jordan, and Weierstrass. But, their formulation did not use the word “limit”, rather the use was part of their definition of continuity. Only later was it pulled out as a separate concept and then returned to the definition of continuity as a previously defined term. See Which Came First?

Students should have plenty of experience in their math courses before calculus with functions that are and are not continuous. They should know the names of the types of discontinuities – jump, removable, infinite, oscillating etc.and the related terms such as asymptote. As you go through this unit, you may want to quickly review these terms and concepts as they come up.

(As a general technique, rather than starting the year with a week or three of review – which the students need but will immediately forget again – be ready to review topics as they come up during the year as they are needed – you will have to do that anyway. See Getting Started #2)

### Topics 1.1 – 1.9: Limits

Topic 1.1: Suggests an introduction to calculus to give students a hint of what’s coming. See Getting Started #3

Topic 21.: Proper notation and multiple-representations of limits.

There is an exclusion statement noting that the delta-epsilon definition of limit is not tested on the exams, but you may include it if you wish. The epsilon-delta definition is not tested probably because it is too difficult to write good questions. Specifically, (1) the relationship for a linear function is always  $delta =frac{varepsilon }{{left| m right|}}$  where m is the slope and is too complicated to compute for other functions, and (2) for a multiple-choice question the smallest answer must be correct. (Why?)

Topic 1.3: One-sided limits.

Topic 1.4: Estimating limits numerically and from tables.

Topic 1.5: Algebraic properties of limits.

Topic 1.6: Simplifying expressions to find their limits. This can and should be done along with learning the other concepts and procedures in this unit.

Topic 1.7: Selecting the proper procedure for finding a limit. The first step is always to substitute the value into the limit. If this comes out to be number than that is the limit. If not, then some manipulation may be required. This can and should be done along with learning the other concepts and procedures in this unit.

Topic 1.8: The Squeeze Theorem is mainly used to determine  $underset{{xto 0}}{mathop{{lim }}},frac{{sin left( x right)}}{x}=1$ which in turn is used in finding the derivative of the sin(x). (See Why Radians?) Most of the other examples seem made up just for exercises and tests. (See 2019 AB 6(d)). Thus, important, but not too important.

Topic 1.9: Connecting multiple-representations of limit. This can and should be done along with learning the other concepts and procedures in this unit. Dominance, Topic 15, may be included here as well (EK LIM-2.D.5)

### Topics 1.10 – 1.16 Continuity

Topic 1.10: Here you can review the different types of discontinuities with examples and graphs.

Topic 1.11: The definition of continuity. The EK statement does not seem to use the three-hypotheses definition. However, for the limit to exist and for f(c) to exist, they must be real numbers (i.e. not infinite). This is tested often on the exams, so students should have practice with verifying that (all three parts of) the hypothesis are met and including this in their answers.

Topic 1.12: Continuity on an interval and which Elementary Functions are continuous for all real numbers.

Topic 1.13: Removable discontinuities and handing piecewise – defined functions

Topic 1.14: Vertical asymptotes and unbounded functions. Here be sure to explain the difference between limits “equal to infinity” and limits that do not exist (DNE). See Good Question 5: 1998 AB2/BC2.

Topic 1.15: Limits at infinity, or end behavior of a function. Horizontal asymptotes are the graphical manifestation of limits at infinity or negative infinity. Dominance is included here as well (EK LIM-2.D.5)

Topic 1.16: The Intermediate Value Theorem (IVT) is a major and important result of a function being continuous. This is perhaps the first Existence Theorem students encounter, so be sure to stop and explain what an existence theorem is.

The suggested number of 40 – 50 minute class periods is 22 – 23 for AB and 13 – 14 for BC. This includes time for testing etc. If time seems to be a problem you can probably combine topics 3 – 5, topics 6 -7, topics 11 – 12. Topics 6, 7, and 9 are used with all the limit work.

There are three other important limits that will be coming in later Units:

The definition of the derivative in Unit 2, topics 1 and 2

L’Hospital’s Rule in Unit 4, topic 7

The definition of the definite integral in Unit 6, topic 3.

Posts on Continuity

CONTINUITY To help understand limits it is a good idea to look at functions that are not continuous. Historically and practically, continuity should come before limits. On the other hand, the definition of continuity requires knowing about limits. So, I list continuity first. The modern definition of limit was part of Weierstrass’ definition of continuity.

Which Came First? (7-28-2020)

Continuity (8-13-2012)

Continuity (8-21-2013) The definition of continuity.

Continuous Fun (10-13-2015) A fuller discussion of continuity and its definition

Right Answer – Wrong Question (9-4-2013) Is a function continuous even if it has a vertical asymptote?

Asymptotes (8-15-2012) The graphical manifestation of certain limits

Fun with Continuity (8-17-2012) the Diriclet function

Far Out! (10-31-2012) When the graph and dominance “disagree” From the Good Question series

Posts on Limits

Why Limits? (8-1-2012)

Deltas and Epsilons (8-3-2012) Why this topic is not tested on the AP Calculus Exams.

Finding Limits (8-4-2012) How to…

Dominance (8-8-2012) See limits at infinity

Determining the Indeterminate (12-6-2015) Investigating an indeterminate form from a differential equation. From the Good Question series.

Locally Linear L’Hôpital (5-31-2013) Demonstrating L’Hôpital’s Rule (a/k/a L’Hospital’s Rule)

L’Hôpital’s Rules the Graph (6-5-2013)

Unlimited

Here are links to the full list of posts discussing the ten units in the 2019 Course and Exam Description. the 2019 versions

2019 CED – Unit 1: Limits and Continuity

2019 CED – Unit 2: Differentiation: Definition and Fundamental Properties.

2019 CED – Unit 3: Differentiation: Composite , Implicit, and Inverse Functions

2019 CED – Unit 4 Contextual Applications of the Derivative  Consider teaching Unit 5 before Unit 4

2019 – CED Unit 5 Analytical Applications of Differentiation  Consider teaching Unit 5 before Unit 4

2019 – CED Unit 6 Integration and Accumulation of Change

2019 – CED Unit 7 Differential Equations  Consider teaching after Unit 8

2019 – CED Unit 8 Applications of Integration   Consider teaching after Unit 6, before Unit 7

2019 – CED Unit 9 Parametric Equations, Polar Coordinates, and Vector-Values Functions

2019 CED Unit 10 Infinite Sequences and Series

# Starting the Year

As you get ready to start school, here are some thoughts on the first week in AP Calculus. I looked back recently at some of the “first week of school” advice I offered in the past. Here’s a quick (actually, a bit longer then I planned) summary with some new ideas.

1. The last time I taught AP Calculus during review time a student asked if there was a list of what’s on the exam. Duh! Why didn’t I think of that? So, I made copies of the list (from the old Acorn Book) and gave it to everyone. I should have done that on Day 1. So, my first suggestion is to make a copy of the “Mathematical Practices” and the “Course at a Glance” from the 2019 AP Calculus Course and Exam Description (p. 14 and p. 20 – 23) and give them to your students. Check off the topics as you do them during the year.
1. DON’T REVIEW! Yes, students have forgotten everything they ever learned in mathematics, but if you reteach it now, they will forget it again by the time they need it next week or next January. So, don’t waste the time, rather, plan to review material from Kindergarten thru pre-calculus when the topics come up during the year. Include short reviews in your lesson plans. For instance, when you study limits you will need to simplify rational expressions – that’s when you review rational expressions. When you look at the graphs of the trigonometric functions, that’s when to review the graphs of the parent functions, a lot of the terminology related to graphs, discontinuities, asymptotes, and even the values of the trigonometric functions of the special angles. Months from now you’ll be looking at inverse functions, that’s when you review inverses.
1. In keeping with Unit 1 Topic 1, you may want to start with a brief introduction to calculus. Several years ago, when I first started this blog, Paul A. Foerster, was nice enough to share some preview problems. They give a taste of derivatives and integrals in the first week of school and get the kids into calculus right off the bat. Here is an updated version. Paul, who retired a few years ago after 50 (!) years of teaching, is Teacher Emeritus of Mathematics of Alamo High Heights School in San Antonio, Texas. He is the author of several textbooks including Calculus: Concepts and Applications. More information about the text and accompanying explorations can be found on the first page of the explorations. Thank you, Paul!
1. If you are not already a member, I suggest you join the AP Calculus Community. We have over 18,000 members all interested in AP Calculus. The community has an active bulletin board where you can ask and answer questions about the courses. Teachers and the College Board also post resources for you to use. College Board official announcements are also posted here. I am the moderator of the community and I hope to see you there!
1.  Here are some links to places on this blog that you may find helpful:
1. Pacing– organizing your year.
2. Check the Resource page from this blog.
3. Calculator information:
4. Miscellany: These posts discuss basic ideas that I always hoped students knew about mathematics before starting calculus

Adapting 2021 BC 6 the last in the series on adapting questions from the 2021 exam will appear in two weeks on Auguest 31, 2021

Revised August 16, 2021

# Polar Equations for AP Calculus

A recent thread on the AP Calculus Community bulletin boards concerned polar equations. One teacher observed that her students do not have a very solid understanding of polar graphs when they get to calculus. I expect this is a common problem. While ideally the polar coordinate system should be a major topic in pre-calculus courses, this is sometimes not the case. Some classes may even omit the topic entirely. Getting accustomed to a new coordinate scheme and a different way of graphing is a challenge.  I remember not having that good an understanding myself when I entered college (where first-year calculus was a sophomore course). Seeing an animated version much later helped a lot.

This blog post will discuss the basics of polar equations and their graphs. It will not be as much as students should understand, but I hope the basics discussed here will be a help. There are also some suggestions for extending the study of polar function as the end.

Instead of using the Cartesian approach of giving every point in the plane a “name” by giving its distance from the y-axis and the x-axis as an ordered pair (x,y), polar coordinates name the point differently. Polar coordinates use the ordered pair (r, θ), where r, gives the distance of the point from the pole (the origin) as a function of θ, the angle that the ray from the pole (origin) to the point makes with the polar axis, (the positive half of the x-axis).

Start with this Desmos graph. It will help if you open it and follow along with the discussion below. The equation in the example is $\displaystyle r(\theta )=2+4\sin (\theta )$ You may change this to explore other graphs. (Because of the way Desmos graphs, you cannot have a slider for θ; the a-slider will move the line and the point on the graph. r(a) gives the value of r(θ).

• Notice that as the angle changes the point at varying distance from the pole traces a curve.
• Move the slider to π/6. Since sin(π/6) = 0.5, r(π/6) = 4. The red dot is at the point (4, π/6). Move the slider to other points to see how they work. For example, θ = π/2 gives the point (6,π/2).
• When the slider gets to θ = 7π/6, r = 0 and the point is at the pole. After this the values of r are negative, and the point is now on the ray opposite to the ray pointing into the third and fourth quadrants. The dashed line turns red to remind you of this.
• As we continue around, the point returns to the origin at θ = 11π/6, then values are again positive.
• The graph returns to its starting point when θ = 2π. Note (2,0) is the same point as (2, 2π).
• Even though this is the graph of a function, some points may be graphed more than once and the vertical line test does not apply.
• If we continued around, the graph will retrace the same path. This often happens when the polar function contains trig functions with integer multiples of θ.
• This does not usually happen if no trig functions are involved – try the spiral r = θ.
• If you enter non-integer multiples of θ and extend the domain to large values, vastly different graphs will appear, often making nice designs. Try $\displaystyle r\left( \theta \right)=2+4\sin \left( {1.3\theta } \right)$ for $\displaystyle 0\le \theta \le 20\pi$. This is an area for exploration (if you have time).

In pre-calculus courses several families of polar graphs are often studied and named. For example, there are cardioids, rose curves, spirals, limaçons, etc. The AP Exams do not refer to these names and students are not required to know the names. The exception is circles which have the following forms where R is the radius: θ=R, r = Rsin(θ) or r = Rsin(θ)

To change from polar to rectangular for use the equations $x=r\cos \left( \theta \right)$ and  $y=r\sin \left( \theta \right)$. This is simple right triangle trigonometry (draw a perpendicular from the point to the x-axis and from there to the pole).

To change from rectangular to polar form use  $r=\sqrt{{{{x}^{2}}+{{y}^{2}}}}$ and  $\displaystyle \theta =\arctan \left( {\tfrac{y}{x}} \right)$

AP Calculus Applications

There are two applications that are listed on the AP Calculus Course and Exam Description: using and interpreting the derivative of polar curves (Unit 9.7) and finding the area enclosed by a polar curve(s) (Units 9.8 and 9.9).

Since calculus is concerned with motion, AP Students should be able to analyze polar curves for how things are changing:

• The rate of change of r away from or towards the pole is given by  $\displaystyle \frac{{dr}}{{d\theta }}$
• The rate of change of the point with respect to the x-direction is given by  $\displaystyle \frac{{dx}}{{d\theta }}$ where $\displaystyle x=r\cos \left( \theta \right)$ from above.
• The rate of change of the point with respect to the y-direction is given by  $\displaystyle \frac{{dy}}{{d\theta }}$ where $\displaystyle y=r\sin \left( \theta \right)$from above.
• The slope of the tangent line at a point on the curve is $\displaystyle \frac{{dy}}{{dx}}=\frac{{dy/d\theta }}{{dx/d\theta }}$. See 2018 BC5 (b)

Area

$\displaystyle \underset{{\Delta \theta \to 0}}{\mathop{{\lim }}}\,\sum\limits_{{i=1}}^{\infty }{{\tfrac{1}{2}}}{{r}_{i}}^{2}\Delta \theta =\tfrac{1}{2}\int_{{{{\theta }_{1}}}}^{{{{\theta }_{2}}}}{{{{r}^{2}}d\theta }}$

CAUTION: In using this formula, we need to be careful that the curve does not overlap itself. In the Desmos example, the smaller loop overlaps the larger loop; integrating from 0 to 2π counts the inner loop twice. Notice how this is handled by considering the limits of integration dividing the region into non-overlapping regions:

• The area of the outer loop is  $\displaystyle \tfrac{1}{2}\int_{{-\pi /6}}^{{7\pi /6}}{{{{{(2+4\sin (\theta ))}}^{2}}d\theta }}\approx 35.525$
• The area of the inner loop is  $\displaystyle \tfrac{1}{2}\int_{{7\pi /6}}^{{11\pi /6}}{{{{{(2+4\sin (\theta ))}}^{2}}d\theta }}\approx 2.174$
• Integrating over the entire domain gives the sum of these two:  $\displaystyle \tfrac{1}{2}\int_{0}^{{2\pi }}{{{{{(2+4\sin (\theta ))}}^{2}}d\theta }}=12\pi \approx 37.699$. This is not the correct area of either part.

This problem can be avoided by considering the geometry before setting up the integral: make sure the areas do not overlap. Restricting r to only non-negative values is often required by the fine print of the theorem in textbooks, but this restriction is not necessary when finding areas and makes it difficult to find, say, the area of the smaller inner loop of the example. Here is another example:

$\displaystyle r\left( \theta \right)=\cos \left( {3\theta } \right)$. Between 0 and $\displaystyle 2\pi$ this curve traces the same path twice.