Unit 6 – Integration and Accumulation of Change

Unit 6 develops the ideas behind integration, the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, and Accumulation. (CED – 2019 p. 109 – 128). These topics account for about 17 – 20% of questions on the AB exam and 17 – 20% of the BC questions.

Topics 6.1 – 6.4 Working up to the FTC

Topic 6.1 Exploring Accumulations of Change Accumulation is introduced through finding the area between the graph of a function and the x-axis. Positive and negative rates of change, unit analysis.

Topic 6.2 Approximating Areas with Riemann Sums Left-, right-, midpoint Riemann sums, and Trapezoidal sums, with uniform partitions are developed. Approximating with numerical methods, including use of technology are considered. Determining if the approximation is an over- or under-approximation.

Topic 6.3 Riemann Sums, Summation Notation and the Definite Integral. The definition integral is defined as the limit of a Riemann sum.

Topic 6.4 The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (FTC) and Accumulation Functions Functions defined by definite integrals and the FTC.

Topic 6.5 Interpreting the Behavior of Accumulation Functions Involving Area Graphical, numerical, analytical, and verbal representations.

Topic 6.6 Applying Properties of Definite Integrals Using the properties to ease evaluation, evaluating by geometry and dealing with discontinuities.

Topic 6.7 The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus and Definite Integrals Antiderivatives. (Note: I suggest writing the FTC in this form displaystyle int_{a}^{b}{{{f}'left( x right)}}dx=fleft( b right)-fleft( a right) because it seem more efficient then using upper case and lower case f.)

Topics 6.5 – 6.14 Techniques of Integration

Topic 6.8 Finding Antiderivatives and Indefinite Integrals: Basic Rules and Notation. Using basic differentiation formulas to find antiderivatives. Some functions do not have closed-form antiderivatives. (Note: While textbooks often consider antidifferentiation before any work with integration, this seems like the place to introduce them. After learning the FTC students have a reason to find antiderivatives. See Integration Itinerary

Topic 6.9 Integration Using Substitution The u-substitution method. Changing the limits of integration when substituting.

Topic 6.10 Integrating Functions Using Long Division and Completing the Square 

Topic 6.11 Integrating Using Integration by Parts (BC ONLY)

Topic 6.12 Integrating Using Linear Partial Fractions (BC ONLY)

Topic 6.13 Evaluating Improper Integrals (BC ONLY) Showing the work requires students to show correct limit notation.

Topic 6.14 Selecting Techniques for Antidifferentiation This means practice, practice, practice.


Timing

The suggested time for Unit 6 is  18 – 20 classes for AB and 15 – 16 for BC of 40 – 50-minute class periods, this includes time for testing etc.


Previous posts on these topics include:

Introducing Integration

Integration Itinerary

The Old Pump and Flying to Integrationland   Two introductory explorations

Working Towards Riemann Sums

Riemann Sums

The Definition of the Definite Integral

Foreshadowing the FTC 

The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

More About the FTC

Y the FTC?

Area Between Curves

Under is a Long Way Down 

Properties of Integrals 

Trapezoids – Ancient and Modern  On Trapezoid sums

Good Question 9 – Riemann Reversed   Given a Riemann sum can you find the Integral it converges to?  A common and difficult AP Exam problem

Adapting 2021 AB 1 / BC 1

Adapting 2021 AB 4 / BC 4

Accumulation

Accumulation: Need an Amount?

Good Question 7 – 2009 AB 3

Good Question 8 – or Not?  Unit analysis

AP Exams Accumulation Question    A summary of accumulation ideas.

Graphing with Accumulation 1

Graphing with Accumulation 2

Accumulation and Differential Equations 

Painting a Point

Techniques of Integrations (AB and BC)

Antidifferentiation

Why Muss with the “+C”?

Good Question 13  More than one way to skin a cat.

Integration by Parts – a BC Topic

Integration by Parts 1

Integration by Part 2

Parts and More Parts

Good Question 12 – Parts with a Constant?

Modified Tabular Integration 

Improper Integrals and Proper Areas

Math vs the Real World Why displaystyle int_{{-infty }}^{infty }{{frac{1}{x}}}dx does not converge.


Here are links to the full list of posts discussing the ten units in the 2019 Course and Exam Description.

2019 CED – Unit 1: Limits and Continuity

2019 CED – Unit 2: Differentiation: Definition and Fundamental Properties.

2019 CED – Unit 3: Differentiation: Composite , Implicit, and Inverse Functions

2019 CED – Unit 4 Contextual Applications of the Derivative  Consider teaching Unit 5 before Unit 4

2019 – CED Unit 5 Analytical Applications of Differentiation  Consider teaching Unit 5 before Unit 4

2019 – CED Unit 6 Integration and Accumulation of Change

2019 – CED Unit 7 Differential Equations  Consider teaching after Unit 8

2019 – CED Unit 8 Applications of Integration   Consider teaching after Unit 6, before Unit 7

2019 – CED Unit 9 Parametric Equations, Polar Coordinates, and Vector-Values Functions 

2019 CED Unit 10 Infinite Sequences and Series


Integration and Accumulation of Change – Unit 6

Unit 6 develops the ideas behind integration, the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, and Accumulation. (CED – 2019 p. 109 – 128 ). These topics account for about 17 – 20% of questions on the AB exam and 17 – 20% of the BC questions.

Topics 6.1 – 6.4 Working up to the FTC

Topic 6.1 Exploring Accumulations of Change Accumulation is introduced through finding the area between the graph of a function and the x-axis. Positive and negative rates of change, unit analysis.

Topic 6.2 Approximating Areas with Riemann Sums Left-, right-, midpoint Riemann sums, and Trapezoidal sums, with uniform partitions are developed. Approximating with numerical methods, including use of technology are considered. Determining if the approximation is an over- or under-approximation.

Topic 6.3 Riemann Sums, Summation Notation and the Definite Integral. The definition integral is defined as the limit of a Riemann sum.

Topic 6.4 The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (FTC) and Accumulation Functions Functions defined by definite integrals and the FTC.

Topic 6.5 Interpreting the Behavior of Accumulation Functions Involving Area Graphical, numerical, analytical, and verbal representations.

Topic 6.6 Applying Properties of Definite Integrals Using the properties to ease evaluation, evaluating by geometry and dealing with discontinuities.

Topic 6.7 The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus and Definite Integrals  Antiderivatives. (Note: I suggest writing the FTC in this form \displaystyle \int_{a}^{b}{{{f}'\left( x \right)}}dx=f\left( b \right)-f\left( a \right) because it seem more efficient then using upper case and lower case f.)

Topics 6.5 – 6.14 Techniques of Integration

Topic 6.8 Finding Antiderivatives and Indefinite Integrals: Basic Rules and Notation. Using basic differentiation formulas to find antiderivatives. Some functions do not have closed-form antiderivatives. (Note: While textbooks often consider antidifferentiation before any work with integration, this seems like the place to introduce them. After learning the FTC students have a reason to find antiderivatives. See Integration Itinerary

Topic 6.9 Integration Using Substitution The u-substitution method. Changing the limits of integration when substituting.

Topic 6.10 Integrating Functions Using Long Division and Completing the Square 

Topic 6.11 Integrating Using Integration by Parts  (BC ONLY)

Topic 6.12 Integrating Using Linear Partial Fractions  (BC ONLY)

Topic 6.13 Evaluating Improper Integrals (BC ONLY) Showing the work requires students to show correct limit notation.

Topic 6.14 Selecting Techniques for Antidifferentiation This means practice, practice, practice.


Timing

The suggested time for Unit 6 is  18 – 20 classes for AB and 15 – 16 for BC of 40 – 50-minute class periods, this includes time for testing etc.


Previous posts on these topics include:

Introducing Integration

Integration Itinerary

The Old Pump and Flying to Integrationland   Two introductory explorations

Working Towards Riemann Sums

Riemann Sums

The Definition of the Definite Integral

Foreshadowing the FTC 

The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

More About the FTC

Y the FTC?

Area Between Curves

Under is a Long Way Down 

Properties of Integrals 

Trapezoids – Ancient and Modern  On Trapezoid sums

Good Question 9 – Riemann Reversed   Given a Riemann sum can you find the Integral it converges to?  A common and difficult AP Exam problem

Accumulation

Accumulation: Need an Amount?

Good Question 7 – 2009 AB 3

Good Question 8 – or Not?  Unit analysis

AP Exams Accumulation Question    A summary of accumulation ideas.

Graphing with Accumulation 1

Graphing with Accumulation 2

Accumulation and Differential Equations 

Painting a Point

Techniques of Integrations (AB and BC)

Antidifferentiation

Why Muss with the “+C”?

Good Question 13  More than one way to skin a cat.

Integration by Parts – a BC Topic

Integration by Parts 1

Integration by Part 2

Parts and More Parts

Good Question 12 – Parts with a Constant?

Modified Tabular Integration 

Improper Integrals and Proper Areas

Math vs the Real World Why \displaystyle \int_{{-\infty }}^{\infty }{{\frac{1}{x}}}dx does not converge.


Here are links to the full list of posts discussing the ten units in the 2019 Course and Exam Description.

2019 CED – Unit 1: Limits and Continuity

2019 CED – Unit 2: Differentiation: Definition and Fundamental Properties.

2019 CED – Unit 3: Differentiation: Composite , Implicit, and Inverse Functions

2019 CED – Unit 4 Contextual Applications of the Derivative  Consider teaching Unit 5 before Unit 4

2019 – CED Unit 5 Analytical Applications of Differentiation  Consider teaching Unit 5 before Unit 4

2019 – CED Unit 6 Integration and Accumulation of Change

2019 – CED Unit 7 Differential Equations  Consider teaching after Unit 8

2019 – CED Unit 8 Applications of Integration   Consider teaching after Unit 6, before Unit 7

2019 – CED Unit 9 Parametric Equations, Polar Coordinates, and Vector-Values Functions 

2019 CED Unit 10 Infinite Sequences and Series


Integration

Integration – DON’T PANIC

As I’ve mentioned before, I try to stay a few weeks ahead of where I figure you are in the curriculum. So here. early in November, I start with integration. You probably don’t start integration until after Thanksgiving in early December. That’s about the midpoint of the year. Don’t wait too much longer. True, your kids are not differentiation experts (yet); there will be plenty of differentiation work while your teaching and learning integration. Spending too much time on differentiation will give you less time for integration and there is as much integration on the test as differentiation.

The first thing to decide is when to teach antidifferentiation (finding the function whose derivative you are given). Many books do this at the end of the last differentiation chapter or the first thing in the first integration chapter. Some teachers, myself included, prefer to wait until after presenting the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (FTC). Still others wait until after teaching all the applications. The reasons  for this are discussed in more detail in the first post below, Integration Itinerary.

Integration itinerary – a discussion of when to teach antidifferentiation.

The following posts are on different antidifferentiation techniques.

Antidifferentiation u-substitution

Why Muss with the “+C”?

Good Question 12 – Parts with a Constant?

Arbitrary Ranges  Integrating inverse trigonometric functions.

Integration by Parts I (BC only)

Good Question 12 – Parts with a Constant  How come you don’t need the “+C”?

The next three posts discuss the tabular method in more detail. This is used when integration by parts must be used more than once. If memory serves, using integration by parts twice on the same function has never shown up on the AP exams. Just sayin’.

Integration by Parts II (BC only) The Tabular method.

Parts and More Parts   (BC only) More on the tabular method and on reduction formulas

Modified Tabular Integration  (BC only) With this you don’t need to make a table; it’s quicker than the tabular method and just as easy.


 

 

 

 

Revised and updated November 4, 2018

Good Question 13

Let’s end the year with this problem that I came across a while ago in a review book:

Integrate \int{x\sqrt{x+1}dx}

It was a multiple-choice question and had four choices for the answer. The author intended it to be done with a u-substitution but being a bit rusty I tried integration by parts. I got the correct answer, but it was not among the choices. So I thought it would make a good challenge to work on over the holidays.

    1. Find the antiderivative using a u-substitution.
    2. Find the antiderivative using integration by parts.
    3. Find the antiderivative using a different u-substitution.
    4. Find the antiderivative by adding zero in a convenient form.

Your answers for 1, 3, and 4 should be the same, but look different from your answer to 2. The difference is NOT due to the constant of integration which is the same for all four answers. Show that the two forms are the same by

  1. “Simplifying” your answer to 2 and get a third form of the answer.
  2. “Simplifying” your answer to 1, 3, 4 and get that third form again.

Give it a try before reading on. The solutions are below the picture.



Method 1: u-substitution

Integrate \int{x\sqrt{x+1}dx}

u=x+1,x=u-1,dx=du

\int{x\sqrt{x+1}dx=}\int{\left( u-1 \right)\sqrt{u}}du=\int{{{u}^{3/2}}-{{u}^{1/2}}}du=\tfrac{5}{2}{{u}^{5/2}}-\tfrac{3}{2}{{u}^{3/2}}

\tfrac{2}{5}{{\left( x+1 \right)}^{5/2}}-\tfrac{2}{3}{{\left( x+1 \right)}^{3/2}}+C

Method 2: By Parts

Integrate \int{x\sqrt{x+1}dx}

u=x,du=dx

dv=\sqrt{x+1}dx,v=\tfrac{2}{3}{{\left( x+1 \right)}^{3/2}}

\int{x\sqrt{x+1}dx}=\tfrac{2}{3}x{{\left( x+1 \right)}^{3/2}}-\int{\tfrac{2}{3}{{\left( x+1 \right)}^{3/2}}dx}=

\tfrac{2}{3}x{{\left( x+1 \right)}^{3/2}}-\tfrac{4}{15}{{\left( x+1 \right)}^{5/2}}+C

Method 3: A different u-substitution

Integrate \int{x\sqrt{x+1}dx}

u=\sqrt{x+1},x={{u}^{2}}-1,

du=\tfrac{1}{2}{{\left( x+1 \right)}^{-1/2}}dx,dx=2udu

2{{\int{\left( {{u}^{2}}-1 \right){{u}^{2}}}}^{{}}}du=2\int{{{u}^{4}}-{{u}^{2}}}du=\tfrac{2}{5}{{u}^{5}}-\tfrac{2}{3}{{u}^{3}}=

\tfrac{2}{5}{{\left( x+1 \right)}^{5/2}}-\tfrac{2}{3}{{\left( x+1 \right)}^{3/2}}+C

This gives the same answer as Method 1.

Method 4: Add zero in a convenient form.

Integrate \int{x\sqrt{x+1}dx}

\int{x\sqrt{x+1}}dx=\int{x\sqrt{x+1}+\sqrt{x+1}-\sqrt{x+1} dx=}

\int{\left( x+1 \right)\sqrt{x+1}-\sqrt{x+1}}dx=

\int{{{\left( x+1 \right)}^{3/2}}-{{\left( x+1 \right)}^{1/2}}dx}=

\tfrac{2}{5}{{\left( x+1 \right)}^{5/2}}-\tfrac{2}{3}{{\left( x+1 \right)}^{3/2}}+C

This, also, gives the same answer as Methods 1 and 3.

So, by a vote of three to one Method 2 must be wrong. Yes, no, maybe?

No, all four answers are the same. Often when you get two forms for the same antiderivative, the problem is with the constant of integration. That is not the case here. We can show that the answers are the same by factoring out a common factor of {{\left( x+1 \right)}^{3/2}}. (Factoring the term with the lowest fractional exponent often is the key to simplifying expressions of this kind.)

Simplify the answer for Method 2:

\tfrac{2}{3}x{{\left( x+1 \right)}^{3/2}}-\tfrac{4}{15}{{\left( x+1 \right)}^{5/2}}+C=

\tfrac{2}{3}{{\left( x+1 \right)}^{3/2}}\left( x-\tfrac{2}{5}\left( x+1 \right) \right)+C=

\displaystyle \tfrac{2}{3}{{\left( x+1 \right)}^{3/2}}\left( \frac{5x-2x-2}{5} \right)+C=

\tfrac{2}{15}{{\left( x+1 \right)}^{3/2}}\left( 3x-2 \right)+C

Simplify the answer for Methods 1, 3, and 4:

\tfrac{2}{5}{{\left( x+1 \right)}^{5/2}}-\tfrac{2}{3}{{\left( x+1 \right)}^{3/2}}+C=

\tfrac{2}{15}{{\left( x+1 \right)}^{3/2}}\left( 3\left( x+1 \right)-5 \right)+C=

\tfrac{2}{15}{{\left( x+1 \right)}^{3/2}}\left( 3x-2 \right)+C

So, same answer and same constant.

Is this a good question? No and yes.

As a multiple-choice question, no, this is not a good question. It is reasonable that a student may use the method of integration by parts. His or her answer is not among the choices, but they have done nothing wrong. Obviously, you cannot include both answers, since then there will be two correct choices. Moral: writing a multiple-choice question is not as simple as it seems.

From another point of view, yes, this is a good question, but not for multiple-choice. You can use it in your class to widen your students’ perspective. Give the class a hint on where to start. Even better, ask the class to suggest methods; if necessary, suggest methods until you have all four (… maybe there is even a fifth). Assign one-quarter of your class to do the problem by each method. Then have them compare their results. Finally, have them do the simplification to show that the answers are the same.

My next post will be after the holidays.

Happy Holidays to Everyone!



.

Antidifferentiation

We now turn to integration. The first thing to decide is when to teach antidifferentiation. Many books do this at the end of the last differentiation chapter or the first thing in the first integration chapter. Some teachers, myself included, prefer to wait until after presenting the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. Still others wait until after teaching all the applications. The reasons  for this are discussed in more detail in the first post below, Integration Itinerary.

If you teach this later, come back and look at it then.

Integration itinerary – a discussion of when to teach antidifferentiation.

The following posts are on different antidifferentiation techniques.

Antidifferentiation u-substitution

Why Muss with the “+C”?

Good Question 12 – Parts with a Constant?

Integration by Parts I (BC only)

Integration by Parts II (BC only)

Parts and More Parts   (BC only) More on the tabular method and on reduction formulas

Modified Tabular Integration  (BC only) With this you don’t need to make a table.


 

 

 

 


 

Integration by Parts 2

Sometimes when doing an Antidifferentiation by Parts, the resulting integral is simpler than the one you started with but requires another, perhaps several more, antidifferentiations. You can do this but it can get a little complicated keeping track of everything especially with all the minus signs. There is an easier way.

Let’s consider an example: \int{{{x}^{4}}\sin \left( x \right)dx}.

Begin by making a table as shown below. After the headings:

    • In the first column leave the first cell blank and then alternate plus and minus signs down the column.
    • In the second column leave the first cell blank and then enter u and then under it list its successive derivatives.
    • In the third column enter dv in the first cell and then list its successive antiderivatives under it

Tabular 5

The antiderivative is found by multiplying across each row starting with the row with the  first plus sign and adding the products:

\int{{{x}^{4}}\sin \left( x \right)dx}=

-{{x}^{4}}\cos \left( x \right)+4{{x}^{3}}\sin \left( x \right)+12{{x}^{2}}\cos \left( x \right)-24x\sin \left( x \right)-24\cos \left( x \right)+C

Integration by Parts 1

The antidifferentiation technique known as Integration by Parts or Antidifferentiation by Parts is based on the formula for the Product Rule: d\left( uv \right)=udv+vdu.
Solve this equation for the second term on the right: udv=d\left( uv \right)-vdu.
Integrating this gives the formula \int{udv}=\int{d\left( uv \right)}-\int{vdu}. By the FTC the first term on the right can be simplified giving the formula for Integration by Parts:

\int{udv}=uv-\int{vdu}

The technique is used to find antiderivatives of expressions such as \int{x\sin \left( x \right)dx} in which there is a combination of functions that are usually of different types – here a polynomial and a trig function.

The parts of the integrand must be matched to the parts of \int{udv}. Here we make the substitutions u=x,dv=\sin \left( x \right)dx and from these we compute du=dx\text{ and }v=-\cos \left( x \right). (There is no need for the +C here; it will be included later). Making these substitutions gives

\int{x\sin \left( x \right)dx}=-x\cos \left( x \right)-\int{-\cos \left( x \right)dx}

The integral on the right is simple so we end with

\int{x\sin \left( x \right)dx}=-x\cos \left( x \right)+\sin \left( x \right)+C

As the problems get more difficult the first question students ask is which part should by u and which dv? The rules of thumb are (1) Chose u to be something that gets simpler when differentiated, and (2) chose dv to be something you can antidifferentiated or at least something that does not get more complicated when you antidifferentiate. For example, in the problem above if we were to choose u=\sin \left( x \right) and  dv=xdx the result is

\int{x\sin \left( x \right)dx}=\tfrac{{{x}^{2}}}{2}\sin \left( x \right)-\int{\tfrac{{{x}^{2}}}{2}\cos \left( x \right)dx}

This is correct, but the integral on the right is more complicated than the one we started with. When this happens, go back and start over.

For AP Calculus teachers: Note that Antidifferentiation by Parts is a BC only topic. It is something you can do in AB classes after the AP exam if you have time.