**AP Questions ****Type**** 5: Riemann Sum & Table Problems**

Information given in tables may be used to test a variety of ideas in calculus including analysis of functions, accumulation, theory and theorems, and position-velocity-acceleration, among others. Numbers and working with numbers are part of the Rule of Four and table problems are one way they are tested. This question often includes an equation in a latter part of the problem that refers to the same situation.

**What students should be able to do:**

- Find the average rate of change over an interval
- Approximate the derivative using a difference quotient. Use the two values closest to the number at which you are approximating. This amounts to finding the slope or rate of change.
__Show the quotient__even if you can do the arithmetic in your head and even if the denominator is 1. - Use a left-, right-, or midpoint- Riemann sums or a trapezoidal approximation to approximate the value of a definite integral using values in the table (typically with uneven subintervals). The Trapezoidal Rule,
*per se*, is not required; it is expected that students will add the areas of a small number of trapezoids without reference to a formula. - Average value, average rate of change, Rolle’s theorem, the Mean Value Theorem, and the Intermediate Value Theorem. (See 2007 AB 3 – four simple parts that could be multiple-choice questions; the mean on this question was 0.96 out of a possible nine points.)
- These questions are usually presented in context and answers should be in that context. The context may be something growing (changing over time) or linear motion.
- Use the table to find a value based on the Mean Value Theorem (2018 AB 4(b)) or Intermediate Value Theorem. Also, 2018 AB 4 (d) asked a related question based on a function given by an equation.
- Unit analysis.

**Dos and Don’ts**

**Do:** Remember that you do not know what happens between the values in the table unless additional information is given. For example,** do not** assume that the largest number in the table is the maximum value of the function, or that the function is decreasing between two values just because a value is less than the preceding value.

**Do:** Show what you are doing even if you can do it in your head. If you’re finding a slope, show the quotient even if the denominator is 1.

**Do Not do arithmetic:** A long expression consisting entirely of numbers such as you get when doing a Riemann sum, does not need to be simplified in any way. If you simplify a correct answer incorrectly, you will lose credit.

**Do Not** leave expression such as R(3) – pull its numerical value from the table.

**Do Not:** Find a regression equation and then use that to answer parts of the question. While regression is perfectly good mathematics, regression equations are not one of the four things students may do with their calculator. Regression gives only an approximation of our function. The exam is testing whether students can work with numbers.

This question typically covers topics from Unit 6 of the **CED **but may include topics from Units 2, 3, and 4 as well.

Free-response examples:

- 2007 AB 3 (4 simple parts on various theorems, yet the mean score was 0.96 out of 9),
- 2017 AB 1/BC 1, and AB 6,
- 2016 AB 1/BC 1
- 2018 AB 4
- 2021 AB 1/ BC 1
- 2022 AB4/BC4 – average rate of change, IVT, Rieman sum, Related Rate (part (d) good question)
- 2023 AB 1/ BC 1 – Right Riemann sum, slope equals zero (may be done by max/min analysis, MVT, or Rolle’s Theorem), Equation extension – average value, meaning of derivative.

Multiple-choice questions from non-secure exams:

- 2012 AB 8, 86, 91
- 2012 BC 8, 81, 86 (81 and 86 are the same on both the AB and BC exams)

Revised March 12, 2021, March 25, 2022, June 6, 2023