**AP Questions ****Type**** 8: Parametric and Vector Equations (BC Only)**

The parametric/vector equation questions only concern motion in a plane. Other topics, such as dot product and cross product, are not tested.

In the plane, the ** position** of a moving object as a function of time,

*t*, can be specified by a pair of parametric equations or the equivalent vector . The

**is the curve traced by the parametric equations or the tips of the position vector. .**

*path*The ** velocity **of the movement in the

*x-*and

*y-*direction is given by the vector . The vector sum of the components gives the direction of motion. Attached to the tip of the position vector this vector is tangent to the path pointing in the direction of motion.

The length of this vector is the ** speed **of the moving object. Speed = . (Notice that this is the same as the speed of a particle moving on the number line with one less parameter: On the number line speed .)

The ** acceleration** is given by the vector .

**What students should know how to do:**

- Vectors may be written using parentheses, ( ), or pointed brackets, , or even form. The pointed brackets seem to be the most popular right now, but all common notations are allowed and will be recognized by readers.
- Find the speed at time
*t*: Speed = . - Use the definite integral for arc length to find the distance traveled . Notice that this is the integral of the speed (rate times time = distance).
- The slope of the path is . See this post for more on finding the first and second derivatives with respect to
*x.* - Determine when the particle is moving left or right,
- Determine when the particle is moving up or down,
- Find the extreme position (farthest left, right, up, down, or distance from the origin).
- Given the position find the velocity by differentiating.
- Given the velocity, find the acceleration by differentiating.
- Given the acceleration and the velocity at some point find the velocity by integrating.
- Given the velocity and the position at some point find the position by integrating. These are just initial value differential equation problems (IVP).
- Dot product and cross product are not tested on the BC exam, nor are other aspects.

When this topic appears on the free-response section of the exam there is no polar equation free-response question and *vice versa.* When not on the free-response section there are one or more multiple-choice questions on parametric equations.

Free-response questions:

- 2012 BC 2
- 2016 BC 2
- 2021 BC 2
- 2022 BC2 – slope of tangent line, speed, position, total distance traveled
- 2023 BC 2 – acceleration vector, speed, tangent line total distance traveled.

Multiple-choice questions from non-secure exams

- 2003 BC 4, 7, 17, 84
- 2008 BC 1, 5, 28
- 2012 BC 2

Visualizing Unit 9 Desmos Demonstrations for Polar, Vector and Parametric Curves

This question typically covers topics from Unit 9 of the **CED.**

Revised March 12, 2021, April 5, and May 14, 2022, March 6, 2023, June 6, 2023