*Three of nine. *Continuing the series started in the last two posts, this post looks at the AB Calculus 2021 exam question AB 3 / BC 3. The series considers each question with the aim of showing ways to use the question in with your class as is, or by adapting and expanding it. Like most of the AP Exam questions there is a lot more you can ask from the stem and a lot of other calculus you can discuss.

## 2021 AB 3 / BC 3

This question is an Area and Volume question (Type 4) and includes topics from Unit 8 of the current Course and Exam Description. Typically, students are given a region bounded by a curve and an line and asked to find its area and its volume when revolved around a line. But there is an added concept here that we will look at first.

The stem is:

First, let’s consider the *c*. This is a *family of functions* question. Family of function questions appear now and then. They are discussed in the post on Other Problems (Type 7) and topics from Unit 8 of the current Course and Exam Description. My favorite example is 1998 AB 2, BC 2. Also see Good Question 2 and its continuation.

If we consider the function with *c* = 1 to be the parent function then the other members of the family are all of the form . The *c* has the same effect as the amplitude of a sine or cosine function:

- The
*x*-axis intercepts are unchanged. - If |
*c*| > 1, the graph is stretched away from the*x*-axis. - If 0 < |
*c*| < 1, the graph is compressed towards the*x*-axis. - And if
*c*< 0, the graph is reflected over the*x*-axis.

All of this should be familiar to the students from their work in trigonometry. This is a good place to review those ideas. Some suggestions on how to expand on this will be given below.

**Part (a): **Students were asked to find the area of the region enclosed by the graph and the *x*-axis for a particular value of *c. *Substitute that value and you have a straightforward area problem.

Discussion and ideas for adapting this question:

- The integration requires a simple
*u*-substitution: good practice. - You can change the value of
*c*> 0 and find the resulting area. - You can change the value of
*c*< 0 and find the resulting area. This uses the upper-curve-minus-the-lower-curve idea with the upper curve being the*x*-axis (*y*= 0). - Ask students to find a general expression for the area in terms of
*c*and the area of*P*(*x*). - Another thing you can do is ask the students to find the vertical line that cuts the region in half. (Sometimes asked on exam questions).
- Also, you could ask for the equation of the horizontal line that cuts the region in half. This is the
*average value*of the function on the interval. See these post 1, 2, 3, and this activity 4.

**Part (b):** This question gave the derivative of *y*(*x*) and the radius of the largest cross-sectional circular slice. Students were asked for the corresponding value of *c*. This is really an extreme value problem. Setting the derivative equal to zero and solving the equation gives the *x*-value for the location of the maximum. Substituting this value into *y*(*x*) and putting this equal to the given maximum value, and you can solve for the value of *c*.

(Calculating the derivative is not being tested here. The derivative is given so that a student who does not calculate the derivative correctly, can earn the points for this part. An incorrect derivative could make the rest much more difficult.)

Discussion and ideas for adapting this question:

- This is a good problem for helping students plan their work, before they do it.
- Changing the maximum value is another adaption. This may require calculator work; the numbers in the question were chosen carefully so that the computation could be done by hand. Nevertheless, doing so makes for good calculator practice.

**Part (c): **Students were asked for the value of *c* that produces a volume of 2π. This may be done by setting up the volume by disks integral in terms of *c*, integrating, setting the result equal to 2π, and solving for *c.*

Discussion and ideas for adapting this question:

- Another place to practice planning the work.
- The integration requires integrating a polynomial function. Not difficult, but along with the
*u*-substitution in part (a), you have an example to show people that students still must do algebra and find antiderivatives. - Ask students to find a general expression for the volume in terms of
*c*and the volume of*P*(*x*). - Changing the given volume does not make the problem more difficult.

Next week 2021 AB 3/ BC 3.

I would be happy to hear your ideas for other ways to use this questions. Please use the reply box below to share your ideas.