# Riemann Sum & Table Problems (Type 5)

### AP Questions Type 5: Riemann Sum & Table Problems

Information given in tables may be used to test a variety of ideas in calculus including analysis of functions, accumulation, theory and theorems, and position-velocity-acceleration, among others. Numbers and working with numbers are part of the Rule of Four and table problems are one way they are tested. This question often includes an equation in a latter part of the problem that refers to the same situation.

What students should be able to do:

• Find the average rate of change over an interval
• Approximate the derivative using a difference quotient. Use the two values closest to the number at which you are approximating.  This amounts to finding the slope or rate of change. Show the quotient even if you can do the arithmetic in your head and even if the denominator is 1.
• Use a left-, right-, or midpoint- Riemann sums or a trapezoidal approximation to approximate the value of a definite integral using values in the table (typically with uneven subintervals). The Trapezoidal Rule, per se, is not required; it is expected that students will add the areas of a small number of trapezoids without reference to a formula.
• Average value, average rate of change, Rolle’s theorem, the Mean Value Theorem, and the Intermediate Value Theorem. (See 2007 AB 3 – four simple parts that could be multiple-choice questions; the mean on this question was 0.96 out of a possible nine points.)
• These questions are usually presented in context and answers should be in that context. The context may be something growing (changing over time) or linear motion.
• Use the table to find a value based on the Mean Value Theorem (2018 AB 4(b)) or Intermediate Value Theorem. Also, 2018 AB 4 (d) asked a related question based on a function given by an equation.
• Unit analysis.

Dos and Don’ts

Do: Remember that you do not know what happens between the values in the table unless additional information is given. For example, do not assume that the largest number in the table is the maximum value of the function, or that the function is decreasing between two values just because a value is less than the preceding value.

Do: Show what you are doing even if you can do it in your head. If you’re finding a slope, show the quotient even if the denominator is 1.

Do Not do arithmetic: A long expression consisting entirely of numbers such as you get when doing a Riemann sum, does not need to be simplified in any way. If you simplify a correct answer incorrectly, you will lose credit.

Do Not leave expression such as R(3) – pull its numerical value from the table.

Do Not: Find a regression equation and then use that to answer parts of the question. While regression is perfectly good mathematics, regression equations are not one of the four things students may do with their calculator. Regression gives only an approximation of our function. The exam is testing whether students can work with numbers.

This question typically covers topics from Unit 6 of the CED but may include topics from Units 2, 3, and 4 as well.

Free-response examples:

• 2007 AB 3 (4 simple parts on various theorems, yet the mean score was 0.96 out of 9),
• 2017 AB 1/BC 1, and AB 6,
• 2016 AB 1/BC 1
• 2018 AB 4
• 2021 AB 1/ BC 1
• 2022 AB4/BC4 – average rate of change, IVT, Rieman sum, Related Rate (part (d) good question)

Multiple-choice questions from non-secure exams:

• 2012 AB 8, 86, 91
• 2012 BC 8, 81, 86 (81 and 86 are the same on both the AB and BC exams)

Revised March 12, 2021, March 25, 2022

# Linear Motion (Type 2)

### AP Questions Type 2: Linear Motion

We continue the discussion of the various type questions on the AP Calculus Exams with linear motion questions.

“A particle (or car, person, or bicycle) moves on a number line ….”

These questions may give the position equation, the velocity equation (most often), or the acceleration equation of something that is moving on the x– or y-axis as a function of time, along with an initial condition. The questions ask for information about the motion of the particle: its direction, when it changes direction, its maximum position in one direction (farthest left or right), its speed, etc.

The particle may be a “particle,” a person, car, a rocket, etc.  Particles don’t really move in this way, so the equation or graph should be considered a model. The question is a versatile way to test a variety of calculus concepts since the position, velocity, or acceleration may be given as an equation, a graph, or a table; be sure to use examples of all three forms during the review.

Many of the concepts related to motion problems are the same as those related to function and graph analysis (Type 3). Stress the similarities and show students how the same concepts go by different names. For example, finding when a particle is “farthest right” is the same as finding when a function reaches its “absolute maximum value.” See my post for Motion Problems: Same Thing, Different Context for a list of these corresponding terms. There is usually one free-response question and three or more multiple-choice questions on this topic.

The positions(t), is a function of time. The relationships are:

• The velocity is the derivative of the position $\displaystyle {s}'\left( t \right)=v\left( t \right)$.  Velocity has direction (indicated by its sign) and magnitude. Technically, velocity is a vector; the term “vector” will not appear on the AB exam.
• Speed is the absolute value of velocity; it is a number, not a vector. See my post for Speed.
• Acceleration is the derivative of velocity and the second derivative of position, $\displaystyle {{s}'}'\left( t \right)={v}'\left( t \right)=a\left( t \right)$ It, too, has direction and magnitude and is a vector.
• Velocity is the antiderivative of acceleration.
• Position is the antiderivative of velocity.

What students should be able to do:

• Understand and use the relationships above.
• Distinguish between position at some time and the total distance traveled during the time period.
• The total distance traveled is the definite integral of the speed (absolute value of velocity) $\displaystyle \int_{a}^{b}{{\left| {v\left( t \right)} \right|dt}}$.
•  Be sure your students understand the term displacement; it is the net distance traveled or distance between the initial position and the final position. Displacement is the definite integral of the velocity (rate of change): $\displaystyle \int_{a}^{b}{{v\left( t \right)dt}}$
• The final position is the initial position plus the displacement (definite integral of the rate of change from xa to x = t): $\displaystyle s\left( t \right)=s\left( a \right)+\int_{a}^{t}{{v\left( x \right)dx}}$ Notice that this is an accumulation function equation (Type 1).
• Initial value differential equation problems: given the velocity or acceleration with initial condition(s) find the position or velocity. These are easily handled with the accumulation equation in the bullet above but may also be handled as an initial value problem.
• Find the speed at a given time. Speed is the absolute value of velocity.
• Find average speed, velocity, or acceleration
• Determine if the speed is increasing or decreasing.
• When the velocity and acceleration have the same sign, the speed increases. When they have different signs, the speed decreases.
• If the velocity graph is moving away from (towards) the t-axis the speed is increasing (decreasing). See the post on Speed.
• There is also a worksheet on speed here
• The analytic approach to speed: A Note on Speed
• Use a difference quotient to approximate the derivative (velocity or acceleration) from a table. Be sure the work shows a quotient.
• Riemann sum approximations.
• Units of measure.
• Interpret meaning of a derivative or a definite integral in context of the problem

Shorter questions on this concept appear in the multiple-choice sections. As always, look over as many questions of this kind from past exams as you can find.

This may be an AB or BC question. The BC topic of motion in a plane, (Type 8: parametric equations and vectors) will be discussed in a later post.

The Linear Motion problem may cover topics primarily from primarily from Unit 4, and also from Unit 3, Unit 5, Unit 6, and Unit 8 (for BC) of the CED

Free-response examples:

• Equation stem 2017 AB 5,
• Graph stem: 2009 AB1/BC1,
• Table stem 2019 AB2
• Equation stem 2021 AB 2
• Equation stem 2022 AB6 – velocity, acceleration, position, max/min

Multiple-choice examples from non-secure exams:

• 2012 AB 6, 16, 28, 79, 83, 89
• 2012 BC 2, 89

Revised March 15, and May 11, 2022

# Rate & Accumulation (Type 1)

### The Free-response Questions

There are ten general types of AP Calculus free-response questions. This and the next nine posts will discuss each of them.

NOTE: The numbers I’ve assigned to each type DO NOT correspond to the CED Unit numbers. Many AP Exam questions intentionally have parts from different Units. The CED Unit numbers will be referenced in each post.

## AP Questions Type 1: Rate and Accumulation

These questions are often in context with a lot of words describing a situation in which some quantities are changing. There are usually two rates acting in opposite ways (sometimes called an in-out question). Students are asked about the change that the rates produce over a time interval either separately or together.

The rates are often fairly complicated functions. If the question is on the calculator allowed section, students should store the functions in the equation editor of their calculator and use their calculator to do any graphing, integration, or differentiation that may be necessary.

The main idea is that over the time interval [a, b] the integral of a rate of change is the net amount of change

$\displaystyle \int_{a}^{b}{{{f}'\left( t \right)dt}}=f\left( b \right)-f\left( a \right)$

If the question asks for an amount, look around for a rate to integrate.

The final (accumulated) amount is the initial amount plus the accumulated change:

$\displaystyle f\left( x \right)=f\left( {{{x}_{0}}} \right)+\int_{{{{x}_{0}}}}^{x}{{{f}'\left( t \right)dt}}$

where $\displaystyle {{x}_{0}}$ is the initial time, and $\displaystyle f\left( {{{x}_{0}}} \right)$ is the initial amount. Since this is one of the main interpretations of the definite integral the concept may come up in a variety of situations.

What students should be able to do:

• Be ready to read and apply; often these problems contain a lot of words which need to be carefully read and understood.
• Understand the question. It is often not necessary to do as much computation as it seems at first.
• Recognize that rate = derivative.
• Recognize a rate from the units given without the words “rate” or “derivative.”
• Find the change in an amount by integrating the rate. The integral of a rate of change gives the amount of change (FTC):

$\displaystyle \int_{a}^{b}{{{f}'\left( t \right)dt}}=f\left( b \right)-f\left( a \right)$

• Find the final amount by adding the initial amount to the amount found by integrating the rate. If $\displaystyle {{x}_{0}}$ is the initial time, and $\displaystyle f\left( {{{x}_{0}}} \right)$  is the initial amount, then final accumulated amount is

$\displaystyle f\left( x \right)=f\left( {{{x}_{0}}} \right)+\int_{{{{x}_{0}}}}^{x}{{{f}'\left( t \right)dt}}$,

• Write an integral expression that gives the amount at a general time. BE CAREFUL, the dt must be included in the correct place. Think of the integral sign and the dt as parentheses around the integrand.
• Find the average value of a function
• Use FTC to differentiate a function defined by an integral.
• Explain the meaning of a derivative or its value in terms of the context of the problem. The explanation should contain (1) what it represents, (2) its units, and (3) what the numerical argument means in the context of the question.
• Explain the meaning of a definite integral or its value in terms of the context of the problem. The explanation should contain (1) what it represents, (2) its units, and (3) how the limits of integration apply in the context of the question.
• Store functions in their calculator recall them to do computations on their calculator.
• If the rates are given in a table, be ready to approximate an integral using a Riemann sum or by trapezoids. Also, be ready to approximate a derivative using a quotient from the numbers in the table.
• Do a max/min or increasing/decreasing analysis.

Shorter questions on this concept appear in the multiple-choice sections. As always, look over as many questions of this kind from past exams as you can find.

The Rate – Accumulation question may cover topics primarily from Unit 4, Unit 5, Unit 6 and Unit 8 of the CED.

Typical free-response examples:

• 2013 AB1/BC1
• 2015 AB1/BC1
• 2018 AB1/BC1
• 2019 AB1/BC1
• 2022 AB1/BC1 – includes average value, inc/dec analysis, max/min analysis
• One of my favorites Good Question 6 (2002 AB 4)

Typical multiple-choice examples from non-secure exams:

• 2012 AB 8, 81, 89
• 2012 BC 8 (same as AB 8)

Updated January 31, 2019, March 12, 2021, March 11, 2022

# AP Exam Review 2022

It will soon be time to start reviewing for the AP Calculus Exams. So, it’s time to start planning your review. For the next weeks through the beginning of April I will be posting notes for reviewing. These are not new; versions have been posted for the last few years and these are only slightly revised and updated. The post will appear on Tuesdays and Fridays for the next few weeks. Posts are intentionally scheduled before you need them, so you can plan ahead. Most people start reviewing around the beginning or middle of April.

Ideas for reviewing for the AP Exam

Part of the purpose of reviewing for the AP calculus exams is to refresh your students’ memory of all the great things you’ve taught them during the rear. The other purpose is to inform them about the format of the exam, the style of the questions, the way they should present their answer, and how the exam is graded and scored.

Using AP questions all year is an effective way to accomplish this. Look through the released multiple-choice exams and pick questions related to whatever you are doing at the moment. Free-response questions are a little trickier since the parts of the questions come from different units. These may be adapted or used in part.

At the end of the year, I suggest you review the free-response questions by type – table questions, differential equations, area/volume, rate/accumulation, graph, etc. More detailed notes on what students needed to know about each of the ten types will be the topic of future posts on Tuesdays and Fridays over the next few weeks. Plan to spend a few days doing a selection of questions of one type so that student can see how that type of question is asked, the format of the question (i.e. does it start with an equation, a table, or a graph), and the various topics that are tested. Then go onto the next type. Many teachers keep a collection of past free-response questions filed by type rather than year. This makes it easy to study them by type. The “types” do not align exactly with the units of the Course and Exam Description (CED) since parts of each question often come from different units.

Student Goals

During the exam review period the students’ goal is to MAKE MISTAKES!  This is how you and they can know what they don’t know and learn or relearn it. Encourage mistakes!

Simulated Exam

Plan to give a simulated (mock) exam. Full exams from past years are available. The free-response questions through 2021 are available here for AB and here for BC. The secure 2014 – 2019 exams are available through your audit website. If possible, find a time when your students can take an entire exam in one sitting (3.25 hours). Teachers often do this on a weekend day or in the evening. This will give your students a feel for what it is like to work calculus problems under test conditions. If you cannot get 3.25 hours to do this, give the sections in class using the prescribed time. Some teachers schedule several simulated exams. Of course, you need to correct them and go over the most common mistakes.

Be aware that all the exams (yes, including the secure exams unfortunately) are available online. Students can find them easily. Here is a modest proposal for how to deal with this:

Don’t grade the practice exam or count it as part of the students’ averages.

Athletes are not graded on their practices, only the game counts. Athletes practice to maintain their skills and improve on their weakness. Make it that way with your practice tests.

Calculus students are intelligent. Explain to them why you are asking them to take a practice exam. Explain how making mistakes is a good thing because it helps them find their weaknesses so they can eliminate them. Use the simulated exam to maintain their skills and find their weakness. This will help them do better on the real exam.  By taking the pressure of a grade away, students can focus on improvement.

Directions

Print a copy of the directions for both parts of the exam and go over them with your students. For the free-response questions emphasize the need to show their work, explain that they do not have to simplify arithmetic or algebraic expressions, and explain the three-decimal place consideration. Be sure they know what is expected of them. The directions are here can be found on any free response released exams. Yes, this is boiler plate stuff, but take a few minutes to go over it with your students. They should not have to see the directions for the first time on the day of the exam. This and other information is explained in detail in this article: How, not only to survive, but to prevail. Copy this article for your students!

Explain the scoring

There are 108 points available on the exam; each half (free-response and multiple-choice) is worth the same – 54 points. The number of points required for each score is set after the exams are graded and changes slightly every year.

For the AB exam, the minimum points required for each score out of 108 points are, very approximately:

• for a 5 – 69 points,
• for a 4 – 52 points,
• for a 3 – 40 points,
• for a 2 – 28 points.

The numbers are similar for the BC exams are again very approximately:

• for a 5 – 68 points,
• for a 4 – 58 points,
• for a 3 – 42 points,
• for a 2 – 34 points.

The actual numbers vary from year to year, but that is not important. What is important for students to know is that they may omit or get a number of questions wrong and still earn a good score. Students may not be used to this (since they skip or get so few questions wrong on your tests!). They should not panic or feel they are doing poorly if they miss a few questions. If they understand and accept this in advance they will calm down and do better on the exams. Help them understand they should gather as many points as they can, and not be too concerned if they cannot get them all. Doing only the first 2 parts of a free-response question will probably put them at the mean for that question. Remind them not to spend time on something that’s not working out, or that they don’t feel they know how to do.

Resources for reviewing

How, Not Only to Survive, but to Prevail… – Notes and advice for your students. You may copy and duplicate this for your class.

Calculator Use on the AP Exams – hints and instruction.

Ted Gott’s Multiple-choice Index – an excel spreadsheet searchable by topic, and referenced to the CED by Learning Objectives (LO) and Essential Knowledge (EK)

Type Analysis 2018 a listing of the questions on both free-response and multiple-choice questions by type, so you can find them easily.

Revised March 8,2022,

# Unit 10 – Infinite Sequences and Series

Unit 10 covers sequences and series. These are BC only topics (CED – 2019 p. 177 – 197). These topics account for about 17 – 18% of questions on the BC exam.

Topic 10.1: Defining Convergent and Divergent Series.

Topic 10. 2: Working with Geometric Series. Including the formula for the sum of a convergent geometric series.

### Topics 10.3 – 10.9 Convergence Tests

The tests listed below are assessed on the BC Calculus exam. Other methods are not tested. However, teachers may include additional methods.

Topic 10.3: The nth Term Test for Divergence.

Topic 10.4: Integral Test for Convergence. See Good Question 14

Topic 10.5: Harmonic Series and p-Series. Harmonic series and alternating harmonic series, p-series.

Topic 10.6: Comparison Tests for Convergence. Comparison test and the Limit Comparison Test

Topic 10.7: Alternating Series Test for Convergence.

Topic 10.8: Ratio Test for Convergence.

Topic 10.9: Determining Absolute and Conditional Convergence. Absolute convergence implies conditional convergence.

### Topics 10.10 – 10.12 Taylor Series and Error Bounds

Topic 10.10: Alternating Series Error Bound.

Topic 10.11: Finding Taylor Polynomial Approximations of a Function.

Topic 10.12: Lagrange Error Bound.

### Topics 10.13 – 10.15 Power Series

Topic 10.13: Radius and Interval of Convergence of a Power Series. The Ratio Test is used almost exclusively to find the radius of convergence. Term-by-term differentiation and integration of a power series gives a series with the same center and radius of convergence. The interval may be different at the endpoints.

Topic 10.14: Finding the Taylor and Maclaurin Series of a Function. Students should memorize the Maclaurin series for $\displaystyle \frac{1}{{1-x}}$, sin(x), cos(x), and ex.

Topic 10.15: Representing Functions as Power Series. Finding the power series of a function by differentiation, integration, algebraic processes, substitution, or properties of geometric series.

### Timing

The suggested time for Unit 9 is about 17 – 18 BC classes of 40 – 50-minutes, this includes time for testing etc.

### Previous posts on these topics:

Before sequences

Amortization Using finite series to find your mortgage payment. (Suitable for pre-calculus as well as calculus)

A Lesson on Sequences.  An investigation, which could be used as early as Algebra 1, showing how irrational numbers are the limit of a sequence of approximations. Also, an introduction to the Completeness Axiom.

Everyday Series

Convergence Tests

Reference Chart

Which Convergence Test Should I Use? Part 1: Pretty much anyone you want!

Which Convergence Test Should I Use? Part 2: Specific hints and a discussion of the usefulness of absolute convergence

Good Question 14 on the Integral Test

Sequences and Series

Graphing Taylor Polynomials.  Graphing calculator hints

Introducing Power Series 1

Introducing Power Series 2

Introducing Power Series 3

New Series from Old 1: Substitution (Be sure to look at example 3)

New Series from Old 2: Differentiation

New Series from Old 3: Series for rational functions using long division and geometric series

Geometric Series – Far Out: An instructive “mistake.”

A Curiosity: An unusual Maclaurin Series

Synthetic Summer Fun Synthetic division and calculus including finding the (finite)Taylor series of a polynomial.

Error Bounds

Error Bounds: Error bounds in general and the alternating Series error bound, and the Lagrange error bound

The Lagrange Highway: The Lagrange error bound.

What’s the “Best” Error Bound?

Review Notes

Type 10: Sequences and Series Questions

# Unit 9 – Parametric Equations, Polar Coordinates, and Vector-Valued Functions

Unit 9 includes all the topics listed in the title. These are BC only topics (CED – 2019 p. 163 – 176). These topics account for about 11 – 12% of questions on the BC exam.

Comments on Prerequisites: In BC Calculus the work with parametric, vector, and polar equations is somewhat limited. I always hoped that students had studied these topics in detail in their precalculus classes and had more precalculus knowledge and experience with them than is required for the BC exam. This will help them in calculus, so see that they are included in your precalculus classes.

### Topics 9.1 – 9.3 Parametric Equations

Topic 9.1: Defining and Differentiation Parametric Equations. Finding dy/dx in terms of dy/dt and dx/dt

Topic 9.2: Second Derivatives of Parametric Equations. Finding the second derivative. See Implicit Differentiation of Parametric Equations this discusses the second derivative.

Topic 9.3: Finding Arc Lengths of Curves Given by Parametric Equations.

### Topics 9.4 – 9.6 Vector-Valued Functions and Motion in the plane

Topic 9.4 : Defining and Differentiating Vector-Valued Functions. Finding the second derivative. See this A Vector’s Derivatives which includes a note on second derivatives.

Topic 9.5: Integrating Vector-Valued Functions

Topic 9.6: Solving Motion Problems Using Parametric and Vector-Valued Functions. Position, Velocity, acceleration, speed, total distance traveled, and displacement extended to motion in the plane.

### Topics 9.7 – 9.9 Polar Equation and Area in Polar Form.

Topic 9.7: Defining Polar Coordinate and Differentiation in Polar Form. The derivatives and their meaning.

Topic 9.8: Find the Area of a Polar Region or the Area Bounded by a Single Polar Curve

Topic 9.9: Finding the Area of the Region Bounded by Two Polar Curves. Students should know how to find the intersections of polar curves to use for the limits of integration.

### Timing

The suggested time for Unit 9 is about 10 – 11 BC classes of 40 – 50-minutes, this includes time for testing etc.

### Previous posts on these topics:

Parametric and Vector Equations

Implicit Differentiation of Parametric Equations

A Vector’s Derivatives

Adapting 2012 BC 2 (A parametric equation question)

Polar Curves

Polar Equations for AP Calculus

Extreme Polar Conditions

# Unit 7 – Differential Equations

Unit 7 is an introduction to the initial ideas and easy techniques related to differential equations . (CED – 2019 p. 129 – 142 ). These topics account for about 6 – 12% of questions on the AB exam and 6 – 9% of the BC questions.

### Topics 7.1 – 7.9

Topic 7.1 Modeling Situations with Differential Equations Relating a functions and its derivatives.

Topic 7.2 Verifying Solutions for Differential Equations A proposed solution of a differential equation can be checked by substituting the function and its derivative(s) into the original differential equation. There may be an infinite number of general solutions (solutions with one or more constants).

Topic 7.3 Sketching Slope Fields Slope fields are a graphical representation of a differential equation and provide information about the behavior of the solutions.

Topic 7.4 Reasoning Using Slope Fields

Topic 7.5 Approximating Solutions Using Euler’s method (BC ONLY) A numerical approach to approximating solutions of a differential equation.

Topic 7.6 Finding General Solutions Using Separation of Variable Since this unit is only an introduction to differential equations, the method of separation of variable is the only solution method tested on the AB and BC exams.

Topic 7.7 Finding Particular Solutions Using Initial Conditions and Separation of Variables An initial condition (i.e. a point on the particular solution) allows you to evaluate the constant in the general solution and find the one solution that contains the initial condition. Also, if $\displaystyle \frac{{dy}}{{dx}}=f\left( x \right)$ has the initial condition$\displaystyle \left( {a,F(a))} \right)$, then the solution is$\displaystyle F\left( x \right)=F\left( a \right)+\int_{a}^{x}{{f\left( x \right)dx}}$. Solution may also be subject to domain restrictions

Topic 7.8 Exponential Models with Differential Equations Applications include linear motion and exponential growth and decay. The growth and decay model is $\displaystyle \frac{{dy}}{{dt}}=kt$ with the initial condition $\displaystyle \left( {0,y\left( 0 \right)} \right)$ has the solution $\displaystyle y=y\left( 0 \right){{e}^{{kt}}}$

Topic 7.9 Logistic Models with Differential Equations (BC ONLY) The model of logistic growth, $\displaystyle \frac{{dy}}{{dx}}=ky\left( {a-y} \right)$, can be solved by separating the variables and using partial fraction decomposition. This has never been tested (probably because solving requires a large amount of complicated algebra). Students are expected to know how to interpret the properties of the solution directly from the differential equation (asymptotes, carrying capacity, point where changing the fastest, etc.) and discuss what they mean in context without actually solving the equation.

### Timing

The suggested time for Unit 7 is  8 – 9 classes for AB and 9 – 10 for BC of 40 – 50-minute class periods, this includes time for testing etc.

### Previous posts on these topics for both AB and BC include:

Differential Equations  A summary of the terms and techniques of differential equation and the method of separation of variables

Domain of a Differential Equation – On domain restrictions.

Accumulation and Differential Equations

Slope Fields

An Exploration in Differential Equations An exploration illustrating many of the ideas of differential equations. The exploration is here in PDF form and the solution is here. The ideas include: finding the general solution of the differential equation by separating the variables, checking the solution by substitution, using a graphing utility to explore the solutions for all values of the constant of integration, finding the solutions’ horizontal and vertical asymptotes, finding several particular solutions, finding the domains of the particular solutions, finding the extreme value of all solutions in terms of C, finding the second derivative (implicit differentiation), considering concavity, and investigating a special case or two.

### Posts on BC Only Topics

Euler’s Method

Euler’s Method for Making Money

The Logistic Equation

Logistic Growth – Real and Simulated