# Polar Curves (Type 9 for BC only)

Ideally, as with parametric and vector functions, polar curves should be introduced and covered thoroughly in a pre-calculus course. Questions on the BC exams have been concerned with calculus ideas related to polar curves. Students have not been asked to know the names of the various curves (rose, curves, limaçons, etc.). The graphs are usually given in the stem of the problem, but students should know how to graph polar curves on their calculator, and the simplest by hand.

What students should know how to do:

• Calculate the coordinates of a point on the graph,
• Find the intersection of two graphs (to use as limits of integration).
• Find the area enclosed by a graph or graphs: Area =$\displaystyle A=\tfrac{1}{2}\int_{{{\theta }_{1}}}^{{{\theta }_{2}}}{(r(}$θ$\displaystyle ){{)}^{2}}d$θ
• Use the formulas $x\left( \theta \right)\text{ }=~r\left( \theta \right)\text{cos}\left( \theta \right)~~\text{and}~y\left( \theta \right)\text{ }=~r(\theta )\text{sin}\left( \theta \right)~$  to convert from polar to parametric form,
• Calculate $\displaystyle \frac{dy}{d\theta }$ and $\displaystyle \frac{dx}{d\theta }$ (Hint: use the product rule on the equations in the previous bullet).
• Discuss the motion of a particle moving on the graph by discussing the meaning of $\displaystyle \frac{dr}{d\theta }$ (motion towards or away from the pole), $\displaystyle \frac{dy}{d\theta }$ (motion in the vertical direction) or $\displaystyle \frac{dx}{d\theta }$ (motion in the horizontal direction).
• Find the slope at a point on the graph, $\displaystyle \frac{dy}{dx}=\frac{dy/d\theta }{dx/d\theta }$.

This topic appears only occasionally on the free-response section of the exam instead of the Parametric/vector motion question. The most recent on the released exams were in 2007,  2013, 2014, and 2017. If the topic is not on the free-response then 1, or maybe 2 questions, probably finding area, can be expected on the multiple-choice section.

Shorter questions on these ideas appear in the multiple-choice sections. As always, look over as many questions of this kind from past exams as you can find.

Next post:

Tuesday April 4: For BC Sequences and Series.

Friday April 7, 2017 The Domain of the solution of a differential equation.

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